Sunday, October 27, 2013
Labor and the Progressive Movement
A. The Imperial Impulse--The War With Spain
2. The Response of Euguene Debs and the Socialists
3. The Response of Samuel Gompers and the AFL
1. Early History
2. Make-up of the National Civic Federation
II. Role of Coal
A. Stoking the Fires of Capitalism
1. Railroads--coal provided the fuel for locomotives--but it was also instrumental in the manufacture of most railroad-related material, including the manufacture of the locomotives it powered, the rolling stock these locomotives pulled, and the rails that the trains ran on.
3. Automobiles--coal was also instrumental in producing the main product that was responsible for effecting the emergence of another fossil fuel that dominated American life during most of the 20th century.
B. Growth of Coal Mining in the 19th Century
2. 1870--186,000 coal miners mined 37 million tons.
3. 1900--677,000 coal miners mined 350 million tons
C. Transformation of American life--coal powered the technological change the transformed American life in the second half of the 19th century and the first two decades of the 20th.
D. Capitalist enterprise in coal
2. Early stage of consolidation--in 1900, no one company owned more than 3% of the national market; but of America's 100 largest companies, a dozen were mining companies.
II. Life of Mother Jones
A. Mary Harris
1. Discrepancies in her life story
a. Potato Famine – it is likely that Mother Jones’ father and older brother left during the Potato Famine (1845-1847); between 1845 and 1853, over 200,000 people a year left Ireland for another country.
b. Immigration to Canada – it is likely that her father immigrated directly to Canada from Ireland—passage was less expensive the year he most likely left; in the 1850 US Federal Census he is listed in Vermont, but the family resided in Toronto, Canada.
3. Education – she attended a normal (teaching) college, but did not finish.
B. Mary Harris Jones
1. Married George Jones – in 1861, shortly after moving to Memphis, Mother Jones met and married iron molder and union member George Jones.
3. 1867 Yellow Fever Epidemic--Mary Jones lost all four children and her husband to the epidemic
4. Move back to Chicago--and worked as seamstress
5. Great Chicago Fire 1871
6. Period between 1871-1894 – the mystery period in the life of Mother Jones
7. 1877 Great Upheaval – may have been in Chicago, put she was not a leading figure in the strikes in Chicago as she claimed (probably a part of her persona).
8. 1886 Haymarket Square – although she disdains the politics of the Chicago anarchists, she upholds them as men of ideals, to be emulated
9. 1894 Coxey’s Army – her first real appearance as Mother Jones; she is part of an advance party for a western band of unemployed who are marching east to join up with Jacob Coxey for his march on Washington.
1. Appeal to Reason – socialist newspaper which Mother Jones helped get off the ground; eventually had 750,000 subscribers, and often reached many more readers.
2. Radical political ideas appealed to a great number of people during this time period.
III. United Mine Workers
A. Founded-- January 1890, struggled to remain in existence during that decade, having to overcome a disastrous strike in 1894.
C. 1897 Eastern Pennsylvania Anthracite Strike--miners in the anthracite district, not members of the UMW, went on strike because of wage cuts. A group of 200 marched to a mine in Lattimer, Pennsylvania to call miners there to join the strike; mine guards shot into the group, killing 19 miners.
6. George F. Baer and the Divine Rights of Money
7. Theodore Roosevelt and the Strike Settlement
D. Women Workers and the Triangle Shirtwaist Fire
1. Coal Mining in Colorado
2. Coal Industry and Colorado Politics
Posted by Gregory M. Miller at 3:29 PM